Greenhouse Hydroponic Cultivation- light requirement
The requirements for light conditions in cultivated crops in the greenhouse: the illumination should be sufficient and evenly distributed.
1. Improve greenhouse structure and increase light transmittance
(1) Choosing a suitable shed site and a reasonable azimuth should choose a south open area, no huge shades of things, and a shelter from the wind.
(2) Reasonable design of the slope and length of the roof. It is necessary to ensure both the light transmittance and the heat preservation effect.
(3) Reasonable transparent roof shape, with arched round roof for good lighting effect.
(4) The skeleton material should be used as little as possible and with fine materials under the premise of ensuring the firm structure of the greenhouse. It is best to use a non-column full steel frame structure to reduce shading and light blocking.
(5) Select a transparent covering material with high light transmittance, and choose high-quality multi-functional film with anti-fog drop and long-lasting effect, strong weather resistance and strong aging resistance, diffuse reflection energy-saving film, dustproof film and light conversion film.
2. Strengthen greenhouse management
(1) Keep the transparent roof clean, often remove dust to increase light transmission, timely release air to reduce condensation, reduce the refractive index of light to improve light transmittance.
(2) Under the premise of heat preservation, the thermal insulation covering material should be uncovered as soon as possible to increase the illumination time. In the rainy and snowy days, the opaque cover should also be uncovered, and the longer the time is, the better the cold insulation can be kept to increase the light transmittance of the scattered light.
(3) Properly planting and rationally arranging the direction of planting. Crops are better toward north-south, with no shadow of death. If things are moving, the line spacing should be increased.
(4) Strengthen the management of plants, and smash the sorghum crops such as cucumber and tomato in time, and hang the vines or insert them. When entering the abundance period, the lower old leaves should be removed in time to prevent the upper and lower leaves from shading each other.
(5) Hanging reflective film, reflective film refers to the silver polyester film with aluminum powder on the surface, the width is 1m, the thickness is above 0.005mm, in the early spring and autumn and winter, hanging in the solar greenhouse about 50cm away from the back wall, The sunlight that shines to the north can be reflected to the front, which can improve the light quality in the north and increase the indoor temperature.
3. Artificial fill light to meet the needs of the crop photoperiod.
When the night is too long to affect the growth of the crop, supplementary light should be applied. In addition, in order to inhibit or promote flower bud differentiation and regulate the flowering stage, it is also necessary to supplement the illumination. This supplemental illumination requires a lower light intensity called low intensity fill light. Due to the high cost of artificial light supplement, it is rarely used in production, mainly used for breeding, introduction, and seedling raising.
There are two main purposes:
(1) Meet the needs of the crop photoperiod.
(2) Reduce the temperature in the greenhouse.
Use a variety of shades, such as shade nets, non-woven fabrics, curtains, bamboo curtains, etc.. Shading can reduce the indoor temperature by 2 ~ 4 °C. Before noon in early summer, the light is too strong, the temperature is too high, exceeds the light saturation point of the crop, and should be shaded when it has an effect on fertility; in order to promote slow seedling after transplanting, it is usually necessary to shave. The light-shielding material requires a certain light transmittance, a high reflectance and a low absorption rate.
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